Petrogenesis of The Sintang Intrusives and Its Implications for Mineralization In Northwest Kalimantan
Arc magmatism is a direct response to tectonic and chemical processes operating in subduction zones. The Sintang Intrusives consist of microdiorite, microgranodiorite, granite/ microgranite, quartz diorite, dacite, andesite, and minor rhyolite and rhyodacite (dacite predominant). Depletion of Nb relative to K and La concentrations are characteristics of the rocks, implying the magma was generated in a subduction zone environment. However, different from magma of other â€œnormalâ€ arcs that were derived from mantle wedges, the magma of the Sintang Intrusives was generated from subducted oceanic crust melting. The result of a careful study of trace element data show that the rocks are of adakite type, characterized by high Sr/Y and Zr/Sm ratios, moderate to strong fractionation of heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and absence of Eu anomalies suggesting melt extraction from garnet-amphibolite sources. By considering the tectonic development in the South China Sea and northwest Kalimantan, it is believed that the magma was probably originated from the melting of previously subducted South China sea oceanic crust (dead slab or fossil subduction) beneath Kalimantan continent in the Late Oligocene - Early Miocene. A compressive tectonic regime in Middle Oligocene, and possibly until Late Oligocene, led to crustal shortening and thickening that facilitated entrapment of arc magma in the Kalimantan crust. The fluid released caused by amphibole breakdown and may have been expelled from older amphibolebearing plutons during compressional tectonics would be significantly important for mineralization.
Keywords : Kalimantan, Sintang Intrusives, oceanic crustal melting, mineralization
Allen, J.C. and Boettcher, A.L., 1978. Amphibole in andesite and basalt: II. Stability as a function of P-T-fO . 2 Amer. Mineral., 63: 1074-1087.
Allen, J.C. and Boettcher, A.L., 1983. The stability of amphibole in andesite and basalt at high pressures. Amer. Mineral., 68: 307-414.
Anonimous., 1988. Epithermal gold, and foreland faulting and magmatism, Kalimantan, Indonesia. BMR Research Newsletter, 9.
Barker, F and Arth, J.G., 1976. Generation of throndhjemite-tonalite liquids and Archean bimodal rondhjemitebasalt suites. Geology, 4: 596-600.
Barker, F., Arth, J.G., Peterman, Z.E. and Friedman, I., 1976. The 1.7 to 1.8 by old trondhjemite of southwestern Colorado and northern New Mexico. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 87: 189-198.
Beard, J.S. and Lofgren, G.E., 1989. Effect of water on the composition of partial melts of greenstone and amphibolite. Sciences, 244: 195-197.
Carlile, J.C. and Mitchell, A.H.G., 1994. Magmatic arc and associated gold and copper mineralisation in Indonesia. In: E.M. Cameron and others (editors), J. Geochemical. Exploration, 50: 91 142.
Cawthorn, R.G. and O'Hara, M.J., 1976. Amphibole fractionation in calc-alkali magma genesis. Amer. J. Sci., 269: 169-182.
Cosky, B., Baxter, J., Crombie, S., Gordon, J. and Cribb, W., 2005. Potential formation of â€œhybridâ€ adakite magmas within the northern Oregon Cascadia subduction zone. Geological Society Abstract of America with Program, vol. 37, No. 7, p 308.
Defant, M.J. and Drummond, M.S., 1990. Deviation of some modern arc magmas by melting of young subducted lithosphere. Nature, 347: 662-665.
Defant, M.J., Maury, R.C., Ripley, E.M., Feigenson, M.D. and Jaques, D., 1991. An example of island-arc petrogenesis: Geochemistry and petrology of the Southern Luzon arc, Pilippines. J. of Petrology, v.32, Part. 3: 455-500.
Drummon, M.S. and Defant, M.J., 1990. A model for trondhjemite-tonalite-dacite genesis and crustal growth via slab melting: Archean to modern comparisons. J. Geophys. Res., 95 B13: 21503-21521.
Foden, J. D. and Green, D.H., 1992. Possible role of amphibole in the origin of andesite: some experimental and natural evidence. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 109: 479-493.
Hamilton, W., 1979. Tectonic of the Indonesian Region. United State Geological Survey, Professional paper 1078 pp.
Harahap, B.H., 1987. The petrology of some young subvolcanic and volcanic rocks from West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Department of Geology, the University of Tasmania, Australia. Unpub. MSc. Thesis
Hartono, U., 2003. A Geochemical Study on the Plio-Pleistocene Magmas from Kalimantan. Their influence to the Tertiary Mineralization System in Kalimantan. Majalah Geologi Indonesia, v. 18, No. 2 Agustus : 168-174.
Hartono, U. and Suyono, 2006. Identification of adakite from the Sintang Intrusives in West Kalimantan. Journal of Geological Resources, v.XVI, No. 3: 173-178.
Heryanto, R., Williams, P.R., Harahap, B.H. and Pieters, P.E., 1993. Geology of the Sintang Sheet area. Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung.
Imai, A., Listanco, E.L. and Fujii, T., 1993. Petrologic and sulfur isotopic siginificant of highly oxidized and sulfurrich magma of Mt. Pinatubo, Phillipines. Geology, 22: 699-3231.
Kay, R.W., 1978. Aleutian magnesian andesites: melts from subducted pacific oceanic crust. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 4: 117-132.
Kay, S.M. and Mpodozis, C., 1999. Setting and origin of Miocene giant ore deposits in the Central Andes. Proceedings of Pacific Rim Congress '99, Bali, Indonesia 10-13 October, 1999, pp : 5-12.
Lawless, J.V., White, P.J., Bogie, E., Paterson, L.A. and Cartwright, A.J., 1997. Epithermal magmatic-related mineral deposits, Exploration based on mineralization models. Kingston Morrison. Jakarta, September 1997.
Malihan, T.D., 1987. Gold-rich Dizon porphyry copper mine in the western central Luzon island, Philippines: Its geology and tectonic settings. Proceedings of Pacific Rim Congress '89. Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Parkvile, Vivtoria, Australia, pp : 303-307.
Maury, R.C.,Sajona, S.G., Pubellier, M., Bellon, H. and Defant, M.J., 1996.Fusion de la croÃ»te ocÃ©anique dans les zones de subduction/ collision rÃ©centes: I'exemple de Mindanao (Philippines). Bull. Soc. GÃ©ol Fr, 167: 579-595.
McCulloh, M.T., M.T. and Gamble, J.A., 1991. Geochemical and geodynamical constrains on subduction zone magmatism. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 102: 358-374.
Oyarzun, R., MÃ¡rquez, A., Lillo, J., Lopez, I. and Rivera, S., 2001. Giant versus small porphyry copper deposits of Cenozoic age in northern Chile: adakite versus normal calc-alkaline magamtism. Mineral Deposits, 36: 794-798.
Prouteau, G., Maury, R.C., Rangin, C., Suparka, E. and Bellon, H., 1996. Les adakites miocÃ¨nes du NW de BornÃ©o, tÃ©moins de la fermeture de la proto-mer de Chine. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris. T.323, serie IIa, p.925 a 932.
Peacock, S.M., Rushmer, T. and Thompson, A.B., 1994. Partial melting of subducted oceanic crust. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 121: 227-224.
Reich, M., Parada, M.A., Palacios, C., Dietrich, A., Schultz, F. and Lehman, B., 2003. Adakite-like signature of Late Miocene intrusions at the Los Pelambres giant porphyry copper deposit in the Andes of Central Chile: metallogenic implications. Mineralium Deposita, 38: 876-885.
Sajona, F.G. and Maury, R.C., 1998. Association of adakite with gold and copper mineralization in the Philippines. C.R. Acad Sci. Paris, 326: 27-34.
Sillitoe, R.H., 2000. Gold-rich porphyry deposits: descriptive and genetic models and their role in exploration and discovery. Rev. Econ. Geol., 13: 315-344.
Sillitoe, R.H. and Gappe, I.M. Jr., 1984. Philippine porphyry deposits : Geologic settings and characteristics. In : United Nation Economic and Social Commision for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, CCOP Technical Publication, pp : 14-89.
Simons, S.F. and Browne, P.R.L., 1990. Mineralogic, alteration and fluid inclusions studies of epithermal goldbearing veins at the Mt Muro prospect, Central Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia, In: Hedenquest,
J.W., White, N.C., Siddely, G. (eds.). Epithermal gold mineralization of the Circum Pacific I; Geology, geochemistry, Origin and exploration. Association of Exploration Geochemists Special Publication, 16a: 63-103.
Soeria-Atmadja, R., Noeradi, D. and Priadi, B., 1999. Cenozoic magmatism in Kalimantan and its related geodynamic evolution. Jour. Asian Earth Sciences, 17: 25-45.
ThiÃ©blemont, D., Stein, G. and Lecuyer, J.L., 1997. Gisement Ã©pithermaux et pophyryques: la connexion adakite. C.R. Acad Sci. Paris Sci Terre PlanÃ¨t, 325: 103-109.
Thompson, J.F.H., Abidin, H.Z., Both, R.A., Martosuroyo, S., Rafferty, W.J. and Thompson, A.J.B., 1994. Alteration and epithermal mineralization in the Masuparia volcanic centre, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia (Special issue) In : van Leeuwen, T.M., Hedenquest, J.W., James, L.P., Dow, J.A.S. (eds.). J of Geochemical exploration, 50: 429-456.
Tosdal, R.M. and Richards, J.P., 2001. Magmatic and structural controls on the development of porphyry Cu Â± Mo Â± Au deposits. Rev. Econ. Geol., 14: 157-181.
van Emmichoven, Z, C.P.A., 1939. The geology of the central and eastern part of the Western Division of Borneo. In : Haile, N.S. (ed.), 1955. Geological accounts of West Borneo translated from the Dutch. Geological Survey Departement, British Territories in Borneo Bulletin, 2 : 159-272.
Williams, P.R. and Harahap, B.H., 1987. Preliminary geochemical and age data from post-subduction intrusive rocks, northwest Borneo. Aust. J. Earth Sci., 34: 405-415.
Williams, P.R., Johnston, C.R., Almond, R.A. and Simamora, W.H., 1988. Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary structural elements of West Kalimantan. Tectonophysics, 148: 179 297.
Authors who publish articles inÂ Jurnal Geologi dan Sumberdaya Mineral (JGSM.Geologi) agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright of the article and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ CC-BY-NC or The Creative Commons Attributionâ€“ShareAlike License.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access)