Termination of a Trench-Linked Strike-Slip Fault Zone in the Sumatra–Java Forearc Basin and Accretionary Wedge Complex


  • Maruf M Mukti Indonesian Institue of Sciences (LIPI)
  • Ilham Arisbaya
  • Haryadi Permana




This paper presents a review of several published seismic reflection and seismicity data and analyzes of high-resolution bathymetry data to revise the exact location and reveal detail characteristics of a strike-slip fault zone that formed the southernmost segment of the Sumatran Fault (SF). Previous works interpreted this fault segment as a horst structure to the south of a pull-apart basin. We observe a clear linear trace of dissected seafloor parallels to SF in the high-resolution bathymetric map. This structure extends from the south of a pull-apart basin in the northwest to the Sunda accretionary wedge farther southeast. This lineament exhibits a narrow valley and a linear ridge that in the subsurface are interpreted as negative and positive flower structures, respectively. The structure exhibits a vertical fault plane and appears to have deformed the accretionary wedge sediments and basement at depth. A cluster of shallow seismicity is observed along this NW-trending fault zone, indicating the activity of this zone. Here, we proposed this strike-slip fault as the Ujung Kulon Fault that marks the southeasternmost segment of the SF zone. This segment deformed the area of the Sumatra-Java forearc basin and terminated in accretionary wedge near the trench. The accumulated strain within UKF may trigger large earthquake in the future, close to the highly populated areas in the coast of Sumatra and Java.

Keywords: Strike-slip fault, Sumatra Fault, Ujung Kulon Fault, segmentation, earthquake.


Download data is not yet available.


Stave, K. A., and Cloud, S., 2000. Using System Dynamics Models to Facilitate Public Participation in Water Resource Management: A Pilot Study Using the Las Vegas, NV Water System. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society. August 77–10, 2000. Bergen, Norway.

Berglar, K., Gaedicke, C., Franke, D., Ladage, S., Klingelhoefer, F., and Djajadihardja, Y.S., 2010. Structural Evolution and Strike-slip Tectonics of North-Western Sumatra. Tectonophysics 480: 119–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2009.10.003

British Oceanographic Data Center, 2003. GEBCO Digital Atlas: Centenary Edition of the IOC/IHO General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans. Liverpool, U. K.

Chauhan, A.P.S., Singh, S.C., Hananto, N.D., Carton, H., Klingelhoefer, F., Dessa, J.-X., Permana, H., White, N.J., and Graindorge, D., 2009. Seismic Imaging of Forearc Backthrusts at Northern Sumatra Subduction Zone. Geophys. J. Int., 179: 1772–1780. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04378.x

Deighton, I., Mukti, M.M., Singh, S., Travis, T., Hardwick, A., and Hernon, K., 2014. Nias Basin, NW Sumatra – New Insight into Forearc Structure and Hydrocarbon Prospectivity from Long-Offset 2D Seismic Data. Proceedings, Indonesian Petroleum Association, Thirty-Eighth Annual Convention & Exhibition, May 2014. Jakarta.

Diament, M., Harjono, H., Karta, K., Deplus, C., Dahrin, D., Zen, M.T., Gerard, M., Lassal, O., Martin, A., and Malod, J., 1992. Mentawai Fault Zone of Sumatra: A New Key to the Geodynamics of Western Indonesia. Geology, 20: 259–262.

Djajadihardja, Y.S., 2010. Bathymetric Map of the Deep Sea Trench, Accretionary Prism and Forearc Basin of the Western Sumatra Water Compiled from Several Cruises after the Great Aceh Earthquake 26 December 2004. Great Earthquake Meeting, Exploring Structural Controls on Great Earhquake Rupture and Architecture of the Sunda/Sumatra Convergent Margin: International Collaboration, Links to Tsunami Modeling and Planning for Future Research Activities, Nice, France, 6. Nice, France.

Fernandez-Blanco, D., Philippon, M., and von Hagke, C., 2016. Structure and Kinematics of the Sumatran Fault System in North Sumatra (Indonesia). Tectonophysics. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2016.04.050

Fitch, T.J., 1972. Plate Convergence, Transcurrent Faults, and Internal Deformation Adjacent to Souheast Asia and the Western Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 77: 4432–4460.

Flueh, E.R., Schreckenberger, B., and Bialas, J., 1999. FS SONNE Fahrtbericht SO138, Cruise Report SO138, GINCO-2: Geoscientific Investigations on the Active Convergence Zone between the East Eurasian and Australian Plates along Indonesia; Jakarta-Jakarta, 29.12. 1998-28.01. 1999. GEOMAR Forschungszentrum für marine Geowissenschaften der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel.

Ghosal, D., Singh, S.C., Chauhan, a.P.S., and Hananto, N.D., 2012. New Insights on the Offshore Extension of the Great Sumatran Fault, NW Sumatra, from Marine Geophysical Studies. Geochemistry, Geophys. Geosystems 13, n/a-n/a. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GC004122

Hananto, N., Singh, S., Mukti, M.M., and Deighton, I., 2012. Neotectonics of North Sumatra Forearc. Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, Thirty-Sixth Annual Convention & Exhibition, May 2012. p. IPA-G-100.

Harding, T., 1990. Identification of Wrench Faults using Subsurface Structural Data: Criteria and Piftalls. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull., 74: 1590–1609.

Harris, R.A., Archuleta, R.J., and Day, S.M., 1991. Fault Steps and the Dynamic Rupture Process: 2D Numerical Simulations of a Spontaneously Propagating Shear Fracture. Geophys. Res. Lett. https://doi.org/10.1029/91GL01061

Harris, R.A., Day, S.M., 1993. Dynamics of Fault Interaction: Parallel Strike-slip Faults. J. Geophys. Res. https://doi.org/10.1029/92JB02272

Izart, A., Kemal, B.M., and Malod, J.A., 1994. Seismic Stratigraphy and Subsidence Evolution of the Northwest Sumatra Fore-arc Basin. Mar. Geol., 122: 109–124.

Jarrard, R.D., 1986. Terrane Motion by Strike-slip Faulting of Forearc Slivers. Geology, 14: 780–783.

Jaxybulatov, K., Koulakov, I., Seht, M.I., Klinge, K., Reichert, C., Dahren, B., and Troll, V.R., 2011. Evidence for High Fluid/Melt Content Beneath Krakatau Volcano (Indonesia) from Local Earthquake Tomography. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 206: 96–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2011.06.009

King, G. and Nábělek, J., 1985. Role of Fault Bends in the Initiation and Termination of Earthquake Rupture. Science, (80-). 228: 984–987.

Lelgemann, H., Gutschef, M.-A., Bialas, J., Flueh, E.R., and Weinrebe, W., 2000. Transtensional Basins in the Western Sunda Strait. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27: 3545–3548.

Malod, J.A., Karta, K., Beslier, M.O., and Zen, M.T., 1995. From Normal to Oblique Subduction: Tectonic Relationships between Java and Sumatra. J. Southeast Asian Earth Sci., 12: 85–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/0743-9547(95) 00023-2

Malod, J.A. and Kemal, B.M., 1996. The Sumatra Margin: Oblique Subduction and Lateral Displacement of the Accretionary Prism, in: Hall, R., Blundell, D. (Eds.), Tectonic Evolution of Southeast Asia. Geological Society Special Publication No. 106: 19–28.

Mann, P., 2007. Global Catalogue, Classification and Tectonic Origins of Restraining and Releasing Bends on Active and Ancient Strike-slip Fault Systems. Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ., 290: 13–142. https://doi.org/10.1144/SP290.2

McCaffrey, R., 1991. Slip Vectors and Stretching of the Sumatran Forearc. Geology, 19: 881–884.

McCaffrey, R., Zwick, P.C., Bock, Y., Prawirodirdjo, L., Genrich, J.F., Stecens, C.W., Puntodewo, S.S.O., and Subarya, C., 2000. Strain Partitioning during Oblique Plate Convergence in Northern Sumatra: Geodetic and Seismologic Constraints and Numerical Modeling. J. Geophys. Res., 105(28): 363-28,376.

Moeremans, R.E. and Singh, S.C., 2015. Fore-arc Basin Deformation in the Andaman-Nicobar Segment of the Sumatra-Andaman Subduction Zone: Insight from High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Data. Tectonics, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015TC003901.Received

Morley, C.K., 2002. A Tectonic Model for the Tertiary Evolution of Strike–slip Faults and Rift Basins in SE Asia. Tectonophysics, 347: 189–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-1951(02)00061-6

Mosher, D.C., Austin, J.a., Fisher, D., and Gulick, S.P.S., 2008. Deformation of the Northern Sumatra Accretionary Prism from High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Profiles and ROV Observations. Mar. Geol., 252: 89–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2008.03.014

Mukti, M.M., 2018a. Structural Complexity in the Boundary of Forearc Basin – Accretionary Wedge in the Northwesternmost Sunda Active Margin. Bull. Mar. Geol., 33: 1–14.

Mukti, M.M., 2018b. Structural Style and Depositional History of the Semangko Pull-apart Basin in the Southeastern Segment of Sumatra Fault Zone. Ris. Geol. dan Pertamb., 28: 115–128.

Mukti, M.M., Singh, S.C., Deighton, I., Hananto, N.D., Moeremans, R., and Permana, H., 2012a. Structural Evolution of Backthrusting in the Mentawai Fault Zone, Offshore Sumatran Forearc. Geochemistry, Geophys. Geosystems, 13: 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GC004199

Mukti, M.M., Singh, S.C., Moeremans, R.E., Hananto, N.D., Permana, H., and Deighton, I., 2012b. Neotectonics of the Southern Sumatran Forearc. Indonesian Petroleum Association, 36th Annual Convention and Exhibition. Indonesian Petroleum Association, Jakarta, p. IPA-G-074.

Natawidjaja, D., Bradley, K., Daryono, M.R., Aribowo, S., and Herrin, J., 2017a. Late Quaternary Eruption of the Ranau Caldera and New Geological Slip Rates of the Sumatran Fault Zone in Southern Sumatra, Indonesia. Geosci. Lett., 4: 21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40562-017-0087-2

Natawidjaja, D., Sapiie, B., Daryono, M., Marliyani, G., Pamumpuni, A., Mukti, M.M., Supartoyo, Hidayati, S., and Solikhin, A., 2017b. Geologi Gempa Bumi Indonesia, in: Irsyam, M., Widiyantoro, S., Natawidjaja, D., Meilano, I., Rudyanto, A., Hidayati, S., Triyoso, W., Hanifa, N., Djarwadi, D., Faizal, L., and Sunarjito (Eds.), Peta Sumber Dan Bahaya Gempa Indonesia 2017. Kementrian Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat, p. 376.

Natawidjaja, D.H., 2018a. Updating Active Fault Maps and Slip Rates along the Sumatran Fault Zone, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. pp. 1–11.

Natawidjaja, D.H., 2018b. Major Bifurcations, Slip Rates, and A Creeping Segment of Sumatran Fault Zone in Tarutung-Sarulla-Sipirok-Padangsidempuan, Central Sumatra, Indonesia. Indones. J. Geosci. ,5: 137–160.

Natawidjaja, D.H., Kumoro, Y., dan Suprijanto, J., 1995. Gempa Bumi Tektonik di Daerah Bukittinggi - Muaralabuh: Hubungan Segmentasi Sesar Aktif dengan Gempa Bumi Tahun 1926 dan 1943. Proceeding of Annual Convention of Geoteknologi-LIPI, Bandung, Indonesia.

Natawidjaja, D.H. and Triyoso, W., 2007. The Sumatran Fault Zone: From Source to Hazard. J. Earthq. Tsunami, 1: 21–47.

Pesicek, J.D., Thurber, C.H., Zhang, H., DeShon, H.R., Engdahl, E.R., and Widiyantoro, S., 2010. Teleseismic Double-Difference Relocation of Earthquakes along the Sumatra-Andaman Subduction Zone using a 3-D Model. J. Geophys. Res., 115: B10303. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JB007443

Reichert, C., Adam, E.J., Anugrahadi, A., Bargeloh, H.O., Block, M., Damm, V., Djajadihardja, Y.S., Heyde, I., Hinz, E., Hutagaol, J.P., Kallaus, G., Kewitsch, P., Koesnadi, H.S., Laesanpura, A., Muljawan, D., Mulyono, S., Neben, S., Schrader, U., Schreckenberger, B., Sievers, J., Widiyanto, S., and Zeibig, M., 1999. Geoscientiftc Investigations on the Active Convergence Zone between the East Eurasian and Indo-Australian Plates along Indonesia.

Sato, H., Hirata, H., Ito, T., Tsumura, N., and Ikawa, T., 1998. Seismic Reflection Profiling across the Seismogenic Fault of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake, Southwestern Japan. Tectonophysics, 286 19–30.

Schlüter, H.U., Gaedicke, C., Roeser, H.A., Schreckenberger, B., Meyer, H., Reichert, C., Djajadihardja, Y., and Prexl, A., 2002. Tectonic Features of the Southern Sumatra-Western Java Forearc of Indonesia. Tectonics, 21: 11–15. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001TC901048

Sieh, K. and Natawidjaja, D.H., 2000. Neotectonics of the Sumatran Fault, Indonesia. J. Geophys. Res., 105(28): 295-326.

Singh, S.C., Hananto, N.D., Chauhan, A.P.S., Permana, H., Denolle, M., Hendriyana, A., and Natawidjaja, D., 2010. Evidence of Active Backthrusting at the NE Margin of Mentawai Islands, SW Sumatra. Geophys. J. Int., 180: 703–714. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04458.x

Singh, S.C., Moeremans, R., Mcardle, J., and Johansen, K., 2013. Seismic Images of the Sliver Strike-slip Fault and Back Thrust in the Andaman-Nicobar Region. J. Geophys. Res., 118: 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrb.50378

Socquet, A. and Pubellier, M., 2005. Cenozoic Deformation in Western Yunnan (China–Myanmar Border). J. Asian Earth Sci., 24: 495–515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2004.03.006

Susilohadi, S., Gaedicke, C., and Djajadihardja, Y., 2009. Structures and Sedimentary Deposition in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia. Tectonophysics, 467: 55–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2008.12.015

Susilohadi, S., Gaedicke, C., and Ehrhardt, A., 2005. Neogene Structures and Sedimentation History along the Sunda Forearc Basins off Southwest Sumatra and Southwest Java. Mar. Geol., 219: 133–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.margeo.2005.05.001

Sylvester, A.G., 1988. Strike-slip Faults. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 100: 1666–1703.

Wilcox, R.E.T., Harding, T.P., and Seely, D.R., 1973. Basic Wrench Tectonics. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull., 57: 74–96.